Today
2021.03.06
로그인 |  회원가입
| 공지/이벤트 | 전체기사
> 뉴스 > 해외자료 > DRJ
     
Volume 21, Issue 2 (Spring 2008 Issue) The Invisible Challenge
미국 재해복구저널 2008년 봄호 보이지 않는 도전
2008년 07월 08일 (화) 15:16:11 편집국 marketing@di-focus.com

   
   
대부분의 많은 회사, 기관들이 자연재해뿐 아니라 정전, 기상악화, 시스템장애, 테러 등 물리적 위협에 의한 업무중단에 대비하는 비상계획을 정도의 차이는 있지만 준비하고 있다. 전통적인 비즈니스연속성계획(BCP)에서는 주요 업무의 중단을 최소하기 위해 필요한 필수복구인력, 대체사업장 등 대응과 복구계획 및 체계 수립을 통해 문제를 해결하려고 노력한다.
Most organizations, whether public or private, prepare continuity plans to address potential interruptions caused by the physical threats in their community. These threats include power outages, severe weather, technology failures, fires, terrorism, as well as other proverbial “Acts of God.” Traditional business or organizational continuity programs address these issues through plans that clearly delineate essential personnel, alternate sites, and other planned mechanisms to minimize or eliminate the disruption of operations during an emergency.

하지만 아쉽게도 기존의 대응계획에서는 업무중단을 가져오는 복합적 위협(a group of threats) 발생시에 대해서는 고려하고 있지 못하는 경우가 대부분이다. 이러한 위협의 예로는 광범위하게 발생하는 전염병, 세균과 같은 질병(pandemics) 창궐 등을 들 수 있다.
Unfortunately, organizational continuity plans (OCPs) almost uniformly ignore a group of threats that challenge nearly all the basic tenants of continuity planning. These threats include invisible challenges such as germs, diseases, and other communicable infections.

이러한 종류의 위협은 보통 보건당국, 병원이 알아서 할 일로 가볍게 생각하기 쉬우나 이러한 위협은 회사, 조직의 치명적인 업무중단을 가져올 뿐 아니라 경제, 사회에 미치는 영향과 충격은 엄청나다. 개념적인 수준의 예측이지만, 미국에서 조류독감과 같은 전염병 창궐시 경제손실은 710억~1660억달러에 이르는 것으로 보고 있다.
These types of threats are most often left to the discretion of local doctor’s offices, hospitals, and public health departments. However, public health threats such as these can wreak havoc on organizational continuity and have a significant economic impact. For instance, according to WebMD, an average American flu season is responsible for 70 million days of missed work and $3-$12 billion via indirect economic loss. Similarly, the Toronto outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 reportedly cost an estimated $722 million in total economic loss in Canada, according to CBC. At a more conceptual level, multiple sources estimate that a future outbreak of pandemic influenza in the United States could cost $71-$166 billion in economic loss.

   
   
실제로 회사와 조직의 많은 BCP 담당자, 책임자들이 업무중단에 위협을 가할 수 있는 여러 종류의 질병, 전염병의 발생이 보건당국에 지속적으로 보고되고 있다라는 사실을 간과하거나 잘 모르고 있다.
Public health threats like germs and diseases are unaddressed in many OCPs for many reasons. Many continuity planners and organizational leaders are unaware that diseases are constantly present in most communities. In many areas, state law dictates that local public health agencies report certain diseases and health conditions that may be a threat to the local community. The type of reportable conditions include, but are not limited to influenza, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), tuberculosis, E. coli, salmonella, meningitis, anthrax, tularemia, lyme disease, mumps, measles, staph infections, whooping cough, and chicken pox. The reporting interval for these diseases ranges from 24 to 72 hours after determination; however, other diseases are only reported on a quarterly basis.

예를 들어, 실제 200만명 정도가 살고 있는 한 도시를 대상으로 수행한 설문조사 결과를 보자. 지난 6년간 보건당국에 보고된 전염병 의심 질병은 총 1만 7000건 정도가 되는데, 사실 이 수치는 (민간요법이나 가정에서 치료, 상담회피, 오진 등의 이유로) 보고되어야 할 실제 발생수치의 10%정도만 공식적으로 보고된다는 사실을 고려했을 때, 연간 2만 8000건의 전염병 의심 질병이 발생하고 있다는 것을 말해주고 있다. 즉 현재에도 이 도시의 1% 이상의 인구가 이러한 상황에 노출되어 있다라는 상황을 판단할 수 있다.
Most continuity planners and organizational leaders are not actively aware of the number of cases of disease present in their particular area. For instance, a survey of one metropolitan area (population approximately 2 million) over a six-year period established the presence of more than 17,000 reportable cases in that period of time. Interestingly, disease experts have stated that only 10 percent of all reportable conditions are ever officially reported due to home remedies, avoidance, professional misdiagnosis, or time. Therefore, in this particular metropolitan area, more likely there have been approximately 170,000 disease cases in the last six years, which is an average of 28,000 per year. Based on the adjusted figure, more than 1 percent of the population has a reportable condition at all times. There have also been numerous regional and national outbreaks in recent years. Specifically, foodbourne outbreaks in peanut butter, ground beef, and fresh spinach have caused numerous issues including employee absenteeism and increased medical insurance claims. Similarly, an outbreak of mumps in the Midwest in 2006 created similar issues as well as the marked concern from the public-at-large.

   
   
이러한 질병과 상황이 어떻게 악화되고 해당 회사와 조직에 영향을 주는지에 대한 이해와 정보확보력의 보유는 BCP 담당자에게 반드시 필요하다.
Before OCPs can be adjusted to address these biological challenges, continuity planners and organizational leadership need to understand how these diseases and conditions spread along as well as additional factors that exacerbate the impact of these conditions. In simple terms, communicable conditions can be spread in two ways: person-to-person and vector spread. While these two categories are not independent of each other, they do represent two broad concepts that are necessary to understand and mitigate the impact of public health threats.

일반적으로 사람접촉으로 인한 전염(호흡기를 통한 전염, 피부접촉 등)인지 병원(病原) 매개 동식물을 통한 것(조류인플루엔자(닭 등 조류), 웨스트나일바이러스 (모기) 등) 인지에 대한 두 가지 범주에 대한 이해가 대응을 위한 기본적인 접근방법이다.
Person to person transfer usually occurs via inhalation, skin contact, or surface contact. This mechanism covers germs that are breathed in or transferred as people touch infected surfaces and then touch soft membranes such as their eyes, nose, or mouth. Influenza, for instance, is commonly spread via person-to-person transfer. Conversely, vector spread conditions are diseases that are spread from a non-human source such as birds, insects, or vermin. A common example of a vector spread disease is West Nile Virus.

공중보건 전문가들은 전염병 관련 질병의 주범은 부적절한 손씻기와 재채기 에티켓으로 보고 있다. 보통 손에는 1만 개에서 1000만 개의 세균이 항상 있으며, 많은 사람이 모여있는 공공장소를 통해서 너무도 쉽게 전염이 가능한 반면 손씻기만 잘해도 대부분의 질병을 막을 수 있다고 지적한다. 또한 기침이나 재채기 시에 손으로 막고 하는 것 만으로도 사람간의 전염을 막을 수 있다. 불행하게도 세균은 우리 주변 어디에서든 피할 수 없는 존재이다. 특히 사람이 많이 모이는 공공장소는 주의해야 한다.
As previously stated, while these mechanisms are naturally-occurring, there are mitigating circumstances which contribute to the spread of disease via these processes. Specifically, the primary culprits are inadequate handwashing as well as poor cough and sneeze etiquette. A typical hand can carry between 10,000 to 10 million germs (both resident and transient), which makes it an excellent mass transporter of sickness and organizational disruption. Moreover, influenza viruses can live on human hands for up to five minutes which provides ample time for an average employee to touch multiple office surfaces and come in contact with the vast majority of the employees in a given office area. Lastly, fecal-oral transfer is another common source of infection. This type of transfer is very common without proper hand washing because fecal material can transfer through seven layers of toilet paper. Most public health experts recommend that people wash their hands for 20-30 seconds with soap and warm water, which can be easily accomplished by internally singing a simple song like “Happy Birthday” or the “ABCs” while a person washes their hands. Poor cough and sneeze etiquette also contribute to the spread of diseases in an office environment. Unfortunately, most people have been taught since childhood to “cover their cough” with their hand; however, this is an extremely efficient way to maximize the person-to-person spread. People should be taught or encouraged to sneeze or cough in the crook of their elbow or into a sleeve. However, socially unacceptable this may be, it minimizes the disease transfer points and therefore reduces the chance of diseases spreading. Unfortunately, germs are everywhere and cannot be avoided. Even areas that people think are clean such as sinks, bathtubs, and women’s purses often contain 20-100 percent more germs than a common garbage can. Similarly, common public areas such as grocery carts, ATM machines, exercise equipment, drinking fountains, and hotel rooms are often covered in opportunistic germs.

   
   
전혀 새롭지 않은 유형의 위협이지만 기존의 BCP에서는 간과하고 있는 이러한 전염병과 같은 대상 위협은 다른 위협들과는 달리 발생 후 상황통제나 백신개발 및 보급 등 대응방안이 어떻게 마련되느냐에 따라 (몇 주에서 몇 개월까지) 오래 지속될 수 있다. 전염병에 감염된 임직원의 복귀와 지역사회 상황이 정상으로 돌아오는 것이 수개월이 걸린다면 일주일, 한달 이내 등 업무복구목표수준 등은 달성불가능하고 실제로 업무를 수행해야 하는 핵심인력과 대체인력 등이 감염 등으로 결근, 손실을 입게 된다면 대체사업장 전략 등 역시 무용지물이 될 수 있다.
These types of challenges to organizational continuity do not easily fit into traditional organizational continuity of operations plans. Specifically, diseases and other communicable conditions have extended durations and can last up to several weeks or months depending on the condition and the mitigation and response available within the community. Consequently, returning to normal operations within 30 days may not be possible. Likewise, moving operational activities to a “safe area” may also be difficult if not impossible. In the case of communicable conditions, the threat is contained within (or on) the operational personnel and therefore will invalidate the “safe area” unless intense control procedures are put into place. Lastly, diseases are invisible and therefore difficult for employees and their families to understand and accept. As such, organizational continuity plans are commonly deficient in addressing the educational pieces that are necessary to address this type of challenge.

커다란 문제이고 도전임에는 틀림없지만 이러한 위협은 기존 BCP 체계의 고도화, 성숙화에 기회를 주고 있다고 할 수 있다. BCP 담당자는 앞에서 언급한 위협에 대한 대응, 복구방안을 진지하게 고려, 적용하는 차원에서 다시 기존의 체계에 대한 재점검과 관련 교육활동을 증가시키고 정책 및 관련 계획서의 효과성, 실행가능성 배가에 집중해야 할 것이다. 업무대응과 복구 관련 핵심인력에 대해서는 전염병에 대한 대응 교육과정을 특화시키는 등 많은 신경과 관심을 집중하는 것도 하나의 좋은 방법이다.
Although challenging, communicable threats do provide another opportunity for mitigation and prevention. Organizational continuity planners need to evaluate the need for increased educational activities and the effectiveness of organizational policies as they relate to the community threats mentioned above. Specifically, all employees, with special focus on essential personnel, should be provided education regarding how diseases spread and encouragement to participate in activities that minimize the transmission in operational areas. Fortunately, this process can range from simple to complex without losing effectiveness. This is particularly important in shared office environments where multiple persons use the same desktop, mouse, keyboard, and phone.

임직원이 많이 모이는 회의실, 식당시설 등에 알코올이 포함된 손 소독기 등의 설치는 회사, 조직의 구성원 간 전염 등을 어느 수준 정도로는 막을 수 있는 좋은 대안이다. 장갑, 마스크, 가운이 포함되어 있는 개인보호장비(Personal Protective Equipment)의 준비, 보유도 인체 전염 조류인플루엔자 등의 신종 바이러스 창궐 등의 상황에서는 특히 효과적일 것이다.
Additionally, organizations must be careful when providing hand sanitizer to their personnel as the sole preventative measure. Hand sanitizers with 60-95 percent alcohol are effective at reducing the spread of diseases, but only as a supplement to good handwashing. Hand sanitizers are excellent temporary measures at workstations and cafeterias but should not be placed in restrooms where hand washing stations are readily available. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is also commonly talked about when addressing public health issues, particularly pandemic influenza. Without any special training, common PPE includes gloves, masks, gowns, and booties. However, these are most likely not necessary for most communicable threats in an office environment. The mitigation and prevention measures already discussed will adequately minimize the spread. The one exception to this rule may be the need for masks (respiratory protection) during a pandemic influenza outbreak; however, this particular issue is complicated and is more thoroughly addressed in other reports provided by the CDC and OSHA.

회사, 조직에서는 관련한 내부정책 및 지침을 명확히 해놓아야 한다. 예를 들어 전염병 의심지역 등에 대한 임직원의 국내외 출장을 제한, 금지하는 것과 출장이 아니더라도 의심지역에서 개인 여행 등으로 돌아온 임직원에 대한 모니터링, 통제할 수 있는 계획과 체계마련은 필수적이다. 이러한 정책과 지침이 효과적으로 운영, 조직문화에 융화되려면 임직원에 대한 교육이 지속적으로 이루어져야 하고 임직원 위생과 보건당국의 전염병 관련 상황보고, 공표를 예의주시하면서 건강상태에 대한 주기적인 확인 활동을 할 수 있는 방안 마련이 미리 준비되어야 할 것이다.
Organizations must also evaluate internal policies to see how they respond to the impact of public health challenges. For instance, many organizations require domestic and international travel by employees and other related personnel. Unfortunately, since communicable diseases are more common in some developing countries, they can be inadvertently transferred to personnel visiting those countries. When the traveling personnel return to the office they may be sick and contaminate other members of the office. Or in more severe circumstances, the local or state health agency may isolate or quarantine the sick traveler and/or those exposed in the office. This would severely impact OCPs due to the impact on the availability of essential personnel. Organizational policies must also be evaluated for day-to-day sicknesses like common colds and flu. Most employees, particularly those with supervisory and management responsibilities, will continue to come to work even after they begin to have symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, and general lethargy. Unfortunately, working with these kinds of symptoms often will expose most of the office to the sickness. Therefore, organizations should review their internal policies to encourage personnel to use available sick time to stay away from work and minimize the overall and long-term impact to organizational operational effectiveness.

회사, 조직의 크기와 제공하는 서비스, 성격과 상관없이, 전염병 위협은 큰 영향과 충격을 미칠 수 있다. 앞에서 언급한 기본적인 보건위생 관련 교육과 여타 대응방안을 조직문화와 구성원과 임직원 계몽을 통해 그 중요성과 심각성을 인식시키는 것이 무엇보다 절실하다. 기존 BCP 체계와 계획을 잘 활용하여 앞에서 언급한 새로운 위협에 특화된 리스크 분석을 수행, 체계적으로 임직원과 그 가족들 간의 의사소통 채널을 확보하고 전사적으로 명확하고 체계적인 대응방안을 마련하여 발생 시 커다란 영향과 충격이 예상되는 전염병과 같은 “보이지 않는 도전”에 대해 철저히 대비해야 할 것이다.
Every organization, regardless of the size and service provided, can be severely impacted by communicable conditions. Every employee, particularly essential personnel, should be provided education and encouragement to practice good hand washing, cough and sneeze etiquette, as well as other prevention techniques. Like all hazards, organizations must evaluate the risks of communicable conditions and other public health threats. Once this evaluation is completed, clear communication with personnel and their families will alleviate some of the fear and misunderstanding that comes with these types of public health threats. Organization should approach preparedness from a comprehensive approach which includes not only flu shots, but education and awareness of communicable diseases. A comprehensive program should be created and incorporated into organizational continuity plans to facilitate to this preparedness and the protection of both the company and its personnel.

 

 

기고자 : 아담 크로우
번역 : 유종기, 영국 BCI(Business Continuity Institute) 한국대표, Deloitte 안진회계법인 기업리스크자문본부 매니저, BS 25999 Technical Expert (registered by BSI)
About The Author: Adam Crowe, MPA, serves as the homeland security planner and resource manager for the Johnson County (KS) Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security. He has also worked as the emergency response and information coordinator for the Platte County (MO) Health Department. Crowe also is the president of the Partnership for Emergency Planning (PEP), which serves the public and private emergency planning sectors in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. He is also an adjunct instructor for Park University. Crowe holds as master’s degree in public administration from Jacksonville State University. Although well-versed in all-hazards emergency management, his specialty is public health threats to the community.

편집국의 다른기사 보기  
ⓒ 위기관리경영(http://www.bcperm.com) 무단전재 및 재배포금지 | 저작권문의   

     
전체기사의견(0)  
      자동등록방지용 코드를 입력하세요!   
 
   * 200자까지 쓰실 수 있습니다. (현재 0 byte/최대 400byte)
   * 욕설등 인신공격성 글은 삭제 합니다. [운영원칙]
전체기사의견(0)
가장 많이 본 기사
경기도, 3월 말까지 미세먼지제거...
2020년 설악산 및 오대산 국립...
서울시, 2021년 미세먼지 저감...
서울시, 은평,서초,중구 등 3곳...
광주시, 초미세먼지저감 달성 위한...
경기도, ‘미세먼지 집중관리구역’...
환경부, 국내외 미세먼지 정책 동...
국내 모든 날씨 미세먼지 정보 동...
인천시, 미세먼지 저감 7개 분야...
충남도, 인천 경기와 서해안 권역...

개인정보취급방침 청소년보호정책 회사소개 정기구독 광고문의 이용약관 이메일무단수집 거부
주소: (우) 07402 서울 영등포구 가마산로46가길 9, 2층 ㆍ TEL) 02-735-0963 ㆍ FAX) 02-722-7073
인터넷신문 등록번호:서울아00353 ㆍ등록연월일:2007년 4월 16일ㆍ 발행인:ㆍ 편집인:
청소년보호책임자:
Copyright 2007 Daily 위기관리경영 All Rights Reserved. mail to admin@di-focus.com